Sample, monitore and investigate without limitations 

Open flow microperfusion (OFM) is an in-vivo sampling technique that builds on the strengths of continuous, minimally invasive interstitial sampling methods such as microdialysis (MD). Instead of a membrane, OFM uses probes with macroscopic openings to exchange substances in a liquid pathway that is based on convection rather than diffusion so that the exchange can occur non-selectively in either direction.

The direct liquid pathway between the probe’s perfusate and the surrounding interstitial fluid (ISF) provides a diluted but otherwise unchanged ISF sample, since no dialysis or filtering occurs. OFM provides unfiltered, merely diluted interstitial fluid from the investigated target tissues (skin, adipose, brain tissue). Endogenous and exogenous substances present in the interstitial fluid of targeted tissues can therefore be quantified without the risk of investigating an altered sample.


Skin Tissue

Transport and effects of drugs in the dermis after topical or systemical application; e. g. topical glucocorticoids and systemic antibodies with psoriasis.


Brain Tissue

Transport over blood-brain-barrier (BBB), dose-response with bypassing BBB, monitoring of BBB function; e. g. highly lipophilic neuropharmaceuticals.


Adipose Tissue

Transport routes and effects of drugs in adipose tissue, e.g. insulins.  

Membrane-free sampling

The distinct advantage of OFM lies in the use of patented, membrane-free probes. Membrane-based sampling technologies like microdialysis are restricted and encounter problems when sampling high molecular weight or highly lipophilic substances in the interstitial fluid. Minimally-invasive OFM probes overcome these problems by featuring an exchange area with no diffusion barrier instead of a membrane. Hence, sampling is not restricted by the size or lipophilicity of substances or any protein binding effects.

Explore conditions and treatments

OFM represents a universal, continuous, tissue-specific sampling method with no nominal cut-off value, which provides the opportunity to investigate all substances regardless of their physico-chemical properties. All substances ranging from ions up to entire immune-competent cells are present in the collected OFM samples which closely reflects the actual ISF composition around the probe.


Materials and Methods




Study materials

  • CE-marked probes, pumps and accessories for preclinical and clinical studies
  • Minimally invasive, membrane-free probes with a 0.36 x 15 mm exchange area and a 0.5 mm needle
  • Portable pump (0.1-10 ul/min) with Delta push-pull modes
  • 3 OFM probes per pump
  • Patents for the probes and pump are pending

Complementary methods

  • Ultrasound to verify the probe location and measure dermal thickness
  • Tape stripping technique for proteomic analysis
  • Skin biopsies, only for validation purposes
  • Suction blister technique, only for validation purposes





Study materials

  • cOFM material only available for preclinical use
  • FEP material: 0.8 mm diameter, 5 mm length
  • high precision stereotactic implantation
  • probe using a removable healing dummy allows tissue regeneration after insertion

Advantages of cOFM material

  • No additional opening of the BBB or trauma to the brain tissue after initial implantation
  • No tissue in-growth into the guide cannula
  • Patent pending


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